The American working market, employment opportunities and working conditions
The access of the legal immigrant to the American working market is conditioned by his or her command of the English language, his or her academic level and his or her experience, achieving it carries favorable working conditions such as access to health plans, social security and retirement pension plans.
Legal immigrant, H – 1B Visa, Employment opportunities, minimum wage, immigrant workers.
The United States of America is one of the world’s most developed economies, with a working force that goes up to the 153 millions of people, which is equivalent to the 50.16% of its population (305 millions of inhabitants to the year 2008, according to the United States Census Bureau) and it is estimated that to the year 2016, it will increase up to 164 millions of workers.
The working population, by gender, is distributed in 46% women and 54% men. This working population characterizes for their grade of education (increase in the rates of registered in the American educative system), level of productiveness (N°1 in the world in the production per employ person in a year and N°2 in production per hour worked), flexibility and mobility.
These conditions, that have made possible the development of the American working market, are the same that any immigrant who wants to work in the United States will find, meaning that the employment opportunities are in function to the academic level, the working experience and the market need, but given to their condition of aliens, the command of the English language and their legal condition are also determining factors that will make easier or harder their insertion in the American working market. The most required visa is the H – 1B Visa, intended for specialized professionals, because it is in that area where the working market shows lacks.
The employment opportunities are found in the sectors that require more work forces and in the year 2007 they were the following:
• Educational and health services
• Trade activities
• Manufacturer sector
• Professional and trade services
• Leisure time and hotel industry services
• Construction sector
• Financial sector
• Transport and public services
• Public managements
• Extractive activities
Statistically, it has been demonstrated that the percentage of immigrant workers in the American working force, has been increasing from 14.8% in the year 2005 to 15.3% in the year 2006, and most of it, is from Hispano – American origins.
The working conditions in the United States of America cover great areas and are guaranteed by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), whose labor is to ensure the fulfillment of all the laws that are related to the civil rights, against any kind of working or salary discrimination.
There is an established minimum wage that has been determined by State and Federal laws; it cannot be readjusted by negotiations with the union, but through legislations with the participation of both parts in the conflict. The minimum wage is from US $ 7.25 per hour.
Also, by law, the working hours have been stated, but anything hinders it to happen in negotiations between the union and the employer. The maximum hours per week are 40, and if there if n excess of house, they are recognized as extra time, with an equivalent value of 1.5 hours of the normal salary.
Any company, that has a working population of more than 50 workers, must give the employers that have worked for 1 250 hours in a year, up to three months of non – paid license of family illness, for newborns or for an illness of their own.
The worker has the right to associate (unions), to receive health loans through the MEDICARE Plan or through plans hired by his or her employer. They have the right to know pensions plan which they can use. Finally, an employer can be compensated for salaries that he or she has not received for accidents or death, and refund the medical and rehabilitation expends.
Summing up, a legal immigrant, when he or she accesses to the North American working market, receives benefits and adequate working conditions, with an adequate salary.