Computers have several components and devices that retaining information during certain period of time, they fulfill one of the main functions of modern computers, which is the storage of information, which is why memories are a fundamental part of the computer and are been used since 1940 with the theories of Von Neumann.
Nowadays, the most important memories for the computer’s processes and functioning are the RAM, ROM and Cache memories. The RAM memory is the random access memory, it is composed of several chips and it is used as a work memory for different applications that we are running in the computer, however, this memory is temporal, and its data are lost whenever it runs out of energy, which is why it is called volatile memory. We can divide the RAM memories in static and dynamic, in the first ones, we can keep the contents untouchable, while it is fed by an energy source, but, on the other hand, on dynamic memories, while reading the information, it destructs immediately, in order to avoid that, we have to restore the information in the memory cells, that is called refreshing operation.
The ROM memories are also a very important part of the computer, its name stands for read only memory and it is only intended to be read. The information it contains cannot be modified or destroyed, even when it has no energy feeding, these memories usually have information of the system’s configuration.
Nowadays, there are still been used to store data about the starting mechanism, and also about the discs, because usually, the hard drive tends to be slower in reading, and it is even more necessary to have a ROM memory, because you cannot read a program that is running in the disc by the disc itself, which is why the computer BIOS are usually hosted in the ROM memory.
The Cache memory is built by a complex of duplicated data of other sectors of the random access memory, with the property that implies that the first ones need a lot of effort and time to get access to, which is why, the first time of accessing to them takes more time, afterwards the process of copying them is very simple when you turn to a program several times, the system copies the lecture data and when we run an application once more, the loading process is much faster and simpler for the system.
Currently, this memory is integrated to the processor and counts with different levels of cache memory for specific purposes; its objective is to store the complex of instructions to which the process continuously accesses, which makes accesses instantaneous. This is why, nowadays, companies are trying to fabricate computers with a cache memory superior to the RAM, because it would help the system’s output and performance and it will also make it possible access to be fluid and quick.